However, changes made in the child with one hand continuously, with another – not necessarily linearly proportional to child participation in the program. Therefore there is a need to introduce some other, different from the diagnostic evaluation system focused on the process rather than the result, which allows to fix the dynamics of the development of each child. We were not able to find for this purely psychological tools, but proved quite effective to use for this purpose, one of the most modern educational technology «Portfolio Assesment». Technology «Portfolio Assesment» has been developed for the collection, organization and analysis of educational activity rather recently, in the 90′s of last century. For 10 years the “Portfolio” has become a common technique used in both academic and teaching activities. Since 1996, the “Portfolio” is included in the standard of education of the State of Vermont, California, individual districts, schools, faculties of education United States and Finland. In Russia, this technology is used in schools, working under the International Baccalaureate program.
“Portfolio” – a “record” of study that characterizes the work of the student and his reflection of his work. It is a specially organized collection of student work that shows its progress in achieving the goals of a study. It is important to note that the objective is formulated by the student by the teacher, so that progress could first see it myself, and then later the adults around him. In this case, going to a variety of sources: written work, reading magazine, design, self-sheets, etc. “Briefcase” shows progress in time, the unit of time is chosen initially (month, six months, year). Respectively through each unit of time is “clearing the Portfolio”: the student in the presence of the teacher scans it, selects the work that has already deemed unnecessary, and throws them away. It is clear that such “cleansing” aimed at the development of reflection on the motivation of the students and their learning. As can be seen from this brief description of the technology, it focuses not on the result of the teachings, but above all for its process and is intended to assist the student in understanding the goals and objectives of training, the dynamics of its development in the educational process.
The use of this technology within the framework of psychological support for students is not only possible, but necessary, as it will see the development of each child. In addition, the “Portfolio” promotes self-esteem of students, to develop their reflection and motivate personal growth, ie, in addition to diagnostic, additionally serves as a form of psychological health of students. Naturally, this technology requires its modifications based on program needs.
It is more convenient to work with “portfolio” is as follows. Each child receives a “Portfolio” – a file folder, the cover of which he draws, based on their tastes. On the left is placed inside of the “Wish List” of the child, ie, formulated with the help of an adult wishes to self-change (I want to become more confident, I would like to have more friends, I want to learn better, etc.). Next, the children explained that the “Portfolio” they can put all of the their works (drawings, stories, test results, etc.), which, as it seems to show that they are a little closer to his goal. “Portfolio” is stored in the school, but not necessarily present in all classes on psychology, after which the facilitator asks the children to think whether they want to put the content of this lesson in the “Portfolio” and why (if not, why, too.) Once every six months leading meets with each child individually, produces “clean”, “Portfolio” and discusses the changes have occurred to him.
It can be said that the “portfolio” is really the most authentically captures the individual progress of each child. We can assume that in the future with the development of practical psychology will experience a departure from the preferred orientation in psychological diagnostics and tests on testopodobnye job to focus strongly on technology aimed at fixing the dynamics of the individual child.
As already mentioned, individual remedial work is carried out with the kids assimilative-accommodative levels. To follow him to refer children to an imbalance of processes of assimilation and accommodation and is used to resolve the internal conflict or assimilative or accommodative money. At the same assimilatory style of behavior is characterized primarily by a desire to adapt to the child’s external circumstances to the detriment of their own desires and possibilities. Nonconstructivity it is manifested in its rigidity, resulting in a child tries to fully comply with the desires of adults. And the most common problems of these children – fear not meet expectations and other social fears. A child with accommodative style of behavior, by contrast, uses an active-offensive, seeking to subjugate the environment to their needs. A non-constructive position is inflexible behavior patterns, the prevalence of external locus of control, lack of criticality. Naturally, the children referred to this level require individual remedial work.
As a theoretical basis of individual remedial work provides an approach centered on the child (H. L.Lendret) based on the following basic principles:
sincere interest in the child and his inner world;
unconditional acceptance of the child as he or she is;
the creation of a child’s sense of security, the possibility of self-examination and the free expression of their feelings;
providing the child with their own means of expression “I”;
gradual correction process, adherence rate, ask a child.
As each child’s own motion path, it is difficult to structure the correction process according to the components of psychological health, highlight milestones. However, you can allocate some conditional steps, based on the feelings exhibited by the child, for the maintenance of his drawings and games.
In the initial phase (1-4th class) are dominated by feelings of loneliness, insecurity, diffuse anxiety. In figures and games depicted the inner world of the child: the collision, crash, attacks, disease, which usually end with the death of the main characters, that is clearly manifested depressive symptoms. Often the fear of self-disclosure is manifested: the children for various valid reasons to refuse employment, are not allowed to take notes, interested, will show whether their parents pictures, etc.
In the medium term (5 – 8 th class) appear suppressed before the child’s feelings: anger, fear, resentment. Work begins on the study of different parts of the “I” (often conflicting). Do you trust the counselor, the child readily comes in different forms of tactile contact with him, is committed to school, upset at the pass. In the figures, themes and games appears winning the main characters, ie the victory of good over evil. Often, a child comes to the discussion of its deeper problem: the fear of his father, suffering from the divorce of their parents, siblings and jealousy, etc.
At the final stage (9 – 15 ezanyatie) appear feelings of joy, freedom, dignity, pride in their accomplishments, faith in their own strength. In the figures, and games are present positive images (beautiful flowers, strong animals, fast cars, brave soldiers, and so on). Several lost interest in lessons. The child agrees to let them through, no objection to their completion.